chromosome
In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are the nuclear bodies containing most of the genes largely responsible for the differentiation and activity of the cell. Chromosomes are most easily studied in their contracted state, which occurs around the metaphase of mitosis or meiosis; they contain most of the cell's DNA in the form of chromatin. Each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. Bacterial and viral cells contain only one chromosome, which consists of a single or double strand of DNA or, in some viruses, RNA, without histones.

Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture . 2015.

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  • chromosome — [ kromozom ] n. m. • 1889; mot all. 1888, du gr. khrôma « couleur » et sôma « corps », « parce qu [ils] absorbent électivement certaines matières colorantes » (J. Rostand) ♦ Chacun des éléments essentiels du noyau cellulaire, de forme déterminée… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Chromosome — Chro mo*some , n. [Gr. ? color + ? the body.] (Biol.) One of the minute bodies into which the chromatin of the nucleus is resolved during mitotic cell division; the {idant} of Weismann. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • chromosome — chromosome. См. хромосома. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Chromosome — Chromosome, s. Pflanzenzelle und Zelle …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • chromosome — 1889, from Ger. Chromosom, coined 1888 by German anatomist Wilhelm von Waldeyer Hartz (1836 1921), from Latinized form of Gk. khroma color (see CHROMA (Cf. chroma)) + soma body. So called because the structures contain a substance that stains… …   Etymology dictionary

  • chromosome — ► NOUN Biology ▪ a thread like structure found in the nuclei of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. DERIVATIVES chromosomal adjective. ORIGIN from Greek khr ma colour + s ma body …   English terms dictionary

  • chromosome — [krō′mə sōm΄] n. [ CHROMO + SOME3] any of the microscopic rod shaped bodies formed by the incorporation of the chromatin in a cell nucleus during mitosis and meiosis: they carry the genes that convey hereditary characteristics, and are constant… …   English World dictionary

  • Chromosome — For a non technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to genetics. Diagram of a replicated and condensed metaphase eukaryotic chromosome. (1) Chromatid – one of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2)… …   Wikipedia

  • Chromosome — Description de la structure d’un chromosome. Un chromosome est un élément microscopique constitué de molécules d ADN. Dans les cellules eucaryotes, les chromosomes se trouvent dans le noyau où ils prennent la forme soit d un bâtonnet, soit d un… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • chromosome — chromosomal, adj. chromosomally, adv. /kroh meuh sohm /, n. Genetics. any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing… …   Universalium

  • Chromosome — A visible carrier of the genetic information. The 3 billion bp (base pairs) in the human genome are organized into 24 distinct, physically separate microscopic units called chromosomes. All genes are arranged linearly along the chromosomes. The… …   Medical dictionary

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