enzyme electrode

A type of biosensor, in which an enzyme is immobilized onto the surface of an electrode. When the enzyme catalyses its reaction, electrons are transferred from the reactant to the electrode, and so a current is generated. There are two types of enzyme electrodes:
1. Ampometric (measuring current flow) where the electrode is kept as near zero voltage as possible. When the enzyme catalyses its reaction, electrons move into the electrode, and so a current flows;
2. Potentiometric (measuring changes in electrical potential) when the electrode is held at a voltage which counteracts the voltage determined by the enzyme's tendency to push electrons into it. Usually enzymes transfer their electrons inefficiently to the electrode, so a mediator compound is coated onto the electrode to help the transfer.

Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture . 2015.

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